May 24, 2024
Indus Civilization

Indus Civilization

The ‘Indus’ civilization developed in South Asia of the ancient world is the name of an immense wonder. About 5,000 years ago, while Europeans were living in dark caves, a well-organized civilization developed on the other side of the world in ancient India.

Besides leading a better life, they also advanced in business. They used science and technology to make everyday life easier and flexible. The proof of which is the archaeological remains of the Indus civilization.

Urban Planning, Architecture and Engineering:

Some cities and towns of the Indus civilization were built on elaborate plans. Considering the urban planning and engineering structure of the city of Mohenjo-daro, it rivaled any city in the world at that time. There was a huge barn at Mohenjo-daro.

Wheat and barley were the main agricultural crops here. Grain was brought from the countryside by bullock carts and stored in these granaries. The granaries were also well ventilated to keep the food grains in good condition for a long time.

Along with the huge granary, there was a huge bath here. The houses were made of burnt mud bricks and were mostly two-storied. In addition to large baths, some houses also had private baths. Mohenjo Daro’s sewage system was as modern as it is today. Arrangements were then made so that the waste from each house was mixed with the city sewers.

The streets of the city are not built randomly, but according to mathematical rules. In Harappa, main sewers are constructed along the main roads of the city with road lamps at fixed distances along the road. They built walls as an important aspect of defense.

A deep trench was again dug in front of the wall. “Lothal” has entered the pages of history as an important port during the Indus Civilization. Paved baths, sewers and drains for waste disposal, wells for drinking water, warehouses were located here. The people of the Indus civilization had a clear understanding of tides and currents.

Irrigation system:

According to a research paper published in the Journal of Archaeological Science, the Harappans grew different crops in different seasons. They knew the rules for growing paddy, maize, beans as summer crops and wheat, barley, pulses in winter.

The study also revealed that in ancient times, a completely different type of wild rice was grown in South Asia. The people of Indus civilization developed this hybrid from India’s own rice variety ‘Oryza sativa indica’ following natural methods.

However, 5000 years ago people had no idea about modern biotechnology or genetic engineering. Being a riverine civilization, they developed advanced irrigation systems. To meet this target of crop production they have also followed the method of digging artificial canals.

Transport :

Indus civilization was very advanced in transportation system. Using science and engineering, they built bullock carts and boats. Boats were small in size and propelled by sails, harnessing the wind. As an ancient port, the importance of Lothal port was immense in the past.

It was probably used as an inter port, so small boats usually anchored here. Although it was used as a small naval port, there were larger ports further out to sea. Sailors from far away used to launch their big ships in the port. As inferred from Bronze Age maps during the Indus Civilization, Lothal was located near the sea. Lothal was associated with a particular small river.


The metallurgical knowledge of the Harappans was keen considering the world of that time. They could make terracotta bricks of specific weight and shape. They also knew the rules of using cotton well. According to sources, they used gold, silver, copper, lapis lazuli, sapphire, emerald, white crystal etc. as ornaments.

They can use lime as plaster and melt lime using thermo-engineering. Pottery made of copper ore, bitumen has been found from Mehrgarh civilization. They wore gold ornaments like bangles, earrings etc. However, beads were valued as ornaments in this civilization.

Both men and women used beads like pearls to decorate their hair. The typical diameter of these beads was 1 millimeter. They were highly skilled in finely cutting, piercing and polishing beads. They invented new methods of mining various metals including copper, brass, lead, tin. A stone covered in gold has been found at the Harappan archaeological site. According to researchers, it was used as a rough stone to measure the purity of gold.

Measure and measure:

People of Indus civilization achieved great success in calculating volume, mass, time with precision. They were the first to invent a scale for more precise and error-free calculations. An ivory scale was found at Lothal which measured up to 1.6 mm. It currently holds the position of the smallest meter found in the Bronze Age. Harappan engineers used decimal calculations for all practical and practical tasks.

Batkhara was also in use for measuring weight in Indus civilization. They knew the rules of measuring 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 units in the ratio of 5:2:1. However, not all cities and towns of the Indus civilization used a single standard for measuring weight, it varied from region to region.

The same rule used by the ancient Lothal to measure weights is found in Kautilya’s Arthashastra (c. 400 BC). Harappans were also proficient in mathematics. The number system they invented included addition, multiplication, and various symbols in addition to modern mathematical numbers.


Clay art is the oldest art in the world. Potters of the Indus civilization made pottery using wheels. Clay pots of different shapes and sizes were made there. Various images were painted on them. Excavations at various archaeological sites of the Indus Civilization have unearthed a large number of clay potsherds.

Medical science:

Indus Civilization knew the use of various medicinal and herbal plants. For example, they used a medical procedure called trephination. ‘Trephination’ is the treatment by cutting the skull to cure brain diseases and skull diseases. Evidence of a medical technique called traction has also been found in skeletons from Lothal, Kalibangan.

According to a 2001 study, people of the pre-Harappan civilization knew about early dentistry. Archaeologists have mainly carried out the research on the remains of two individuals recovered from the ruins of the Mehrgarh civilization.

In April 2006, an article was published in the scientific journal ‘Nature’, which noted that early Neolithic evidence of human teeth grinding was found in the Mehrgarh civilization. Eleven bonded tooth-crowns of nine adults were discovered from a cemetery in ancient Mehrgarh, which may be dated between 5,500 and 9,000 years ago.

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